The Youth Scientists Journal

Archive for the ‘Biology’ Category

In this practical, we’re investigating the effect on the different exercises we do on the human body. Our group would be running along the corridor and we would take the heart rate,  breathing rate, temperature and oxygen concentration of the person who’re running. The person who would be running is Fornia .

We would first take her heart rate, breathing rate, temperature and oxygen concentration before she start running . And after she ran for one minute, we would take again. We would take for 5 times, then , she would start to rest and we would take every minute for 5 mintues.

After she ran, she felt her legs aching , breathless and her heart rate also increased.





Fornia, HuanHui, QianLing, Vivien, Yvonne



Posted on: 17 August 2009

Members : Benjamin, Nadiah, Haryani & Darren
In this week practical, we are investigating the effects of different exercises on the human body. Our subject for the activity given is Darren, one of our team members who are assigned to doing star jumps continuously for 5 minutes. We measure the breathing rate, heart rate, body temperature and the oxygen concentration before the experiment started which then Darren had to start jumping for 20 seconds before we measure the breathing rate, heart rate, body temperature and the oxygen concentration again.
Oxygen Temperature Heart Rate Breathing Rate
Before exercise 11.4 31 100 1.1
1st (star jump) 0.4 33.8 102 1.7
2nd (star jump) 0.38 36 90 1.6
3rd (star jump) 0.39 30.5 144 0.98
4th (star jump) 0.24 37 126 1.67
5th (star jump) 0.24 35.6 132 1.7
6th(resting) 11.38 31.5 100 1.3
7th (resting ) 11 30 120 1.8
8th (resting ) 11.25 31.1 72 1.6
9th (resting ) 11.4 31.5 102 1.7
10th(resting) 10.98 31.25 114 1.6
The results is inaccurate because of human and random errors
• where we took a longer to set up the equipment to recorded the readings.
• Oxygen sensor set up wrongly
• The time (20s) was delayed as we forgotten about it
• Hence, Darren was left to doing more star jumps

Group Members: Benjamin Ang (leader), Nadiah Nadhirah, Nur Haryani

Firstly, to summarise the whole chapter 8 – Transport in Human. It is about the transfer of substances from one part of the body to another through a transport system. This occurs due to the complex multi-cellular system, where numerous cells are situated deep in the body. Hence simple diffusion or osmosis cannot transport substances to and fro.

The first part of the experiment as stated above is to identify parts of the heart externally, such as anterior vena cava, aortic arch, pulmonary arch, pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, left atrium, right atrium & etc. and internally, identifying the blood vessels, white and red blood cells, understanding the structures of the blood vessels and its function and describe the structures of blood vessels, red and white blood cells.

As shown above, Benjamin has labelled the part of the heart structure that he identified with the pins given as instructed.
Firstly, we differentiated the left and right atrium of the heart and poke the other parts with a glass rod to identify the rest of the parts of the heart.

Pictures of microscope slides




In this week practical, we are investigating the effects of different exercises on the human body. Our subject in this experiment is Vanessa, one of our team members and the exercise assigned to us is to walk up and down the stairs. We measure the breathing rate, heart rate, body temperature and the oxygen concentration before the experiment started. Then, Vanessa walked up and down the stairs for 1 minute before we measure the breathing rate, heart rate, body temperature and the oxygen concentration again, we did this 4 more times, and also record the data for 5 more minutes while cooling down.


Before exercise

temperature/˚C         EKG          Oxygen Level         Breathing Rate/ 20 s
1              35                           1.5                       4                                        7

During exercise

temperature/˚C      EKG     Oxygen Level      Breathing Rate/ 20 s
1     34                                1.75           11.5                                  5
2     34                                1.75           11.2                                  7
3     34                                2                  9                                       6
4     33                                2                  8                                       7
5     34                                2                  12                                    7

cooling down

temperature/˚C             EKG            Oxygen Level          Breathing Rate/ 20 s
1     34                                        1.5                       8                                     6
2    33                                        2.5                       4.5                                 6
3    32                                        1.5                       5.5                                  6
4    32                                        1.2                       5                                      7.5 5
5    33                                        1.25                     7                                    6

Table of our collated results

group members :

Jia Yi

Respiration is a very important process in our body. It allows us to live, and in every way is indeed a miracle. Without this process in our body, it would be very difficult for us to survive. It enables our body to take in clean oxygen and send it to the rest of the body. It also helps in ridding the body of carbon dioxide.

During this practical we had the opportunity to do an experiment on one of our group members, Lee Youzheng. We measured and recorded his body temperature and heart rate, along with his breathing rate and the amount of oxygen concentration there was in the surrounding air, before the experiment stared.

He did ten sit-ups and push-ups for a minute before we took the necessary measurements. He did this for four more times and stopped at the fifth minute. We then allowed him too cool down and did the test over again after every minute for five minutes.

Watch the whole experiment here.

The heart is divided into four chambers: two atria (the upper chambers) & two ventricles (the lower chambers)

The ventricles have thicker walls than the atria. The left ventricle has a thciker wall than the right ventricle. This allows the left ventricle to exert more force on the blood inside it when contracting. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body via the vena cava. The ring of muscle around the vena cava, at the point where it enters the heart, contracts to prevent back flow of blood.

Dissecting of the goats’s heart.



We differentiate the parts of the heart by looking at the left ventricle which is supposed to be bigger than the right ventricle , and the arteries are also supposed to be thicker.

We found that the right and left sides of the heart is separated by the septum.

The most difficult part of the experiment is to dissect the heart because we are not sure which part we should dissect to get the clearest view.

To view the videos of dissecting the heart :

byes (:


Qianling, Huanhui & Darren .

We first started observing the exterior surface of the heart and labelled the different parts.




Labelled heart.

Next, we started cutting the heart longitudinally.


The heart after being cut into half.


After dissecting the heart, we identified the different parts of the heart and labelled them.

Picture of a Labelled diagram of a goat heart:




After labelling and drawing the heart, we proceeded to look at the different slides under the microscopes, and recorded our observations down.

Pictures of the slides we saw:



And here is a video on how to use a microscope.



Done by Group:





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